Thursday, May 21, 2020
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 694 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/04/07 Category Literature Essay Type Book review Level High school Topics: The Things They Carried Essay Did you like this example? In his book, Tim OBrien aims to shed light on misconceptions and truths of war by thoroughly describing the thoughts and feelings of a soldier in the Vietnam War. He includes the steps and paths taken to become a soldier and also the detailed descriptions of war stories and their effects on individual men. Through examples of death and hardship, OBrien ties the reader emotionally to the main character. The way he strategically organizes his book to walk the reader through the events of war really immerses the reader while providing insight to tragedy. In the beginning of the book, OBrien uses great detail to describe the materialistic things that the different soldiers carried. But the things they carried were not always tangible items but emotional burdens as well. Many of the soldiers were very young teenagers, newly wedded husbands, or even students. These men were not capable of fulfilling the cruel demands of war such as killing other human beings and being away from loved ones for excruciatingly long times. The book clearly illustrates the conflict of love and war. The main character, Lieutenant Cross, carries emotional burdens himself. A very prominent one is the love he possesses for Martha. The woman who he keeps a picture of in his wallet. The woman whom he still loves and wishes loved him back. He constantly deals with internal turmoil regarding the fragmented relationship he carries with Martha. He often finds himself fantasizing over what they could have been. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Book Review The Things They Carried" essay for you Create order Another example of how war affects men is how Lieutenant Cross reacts to the death of Ted Lavender and Kiowa. Cross reacts with much guilt and grief because he was responsible for the lives of the company: When a man died, there had to be blame. Jimmy Cross understood this. You could blame the war A moment of carelessness or bad judgment or plain stupidity carried consequences that lasted forever. (In the Field.115) This quote is Jim Cross blaming himself for Kiowas death. He goes over all the things he could blame but he believes it was his fault. Again, this further proves the internal issues and baggage Jim carries. In another response to the death(s), he rips up the photograph of Martha and basically blames her for his inattentiveness. Due to his preoccupation with her. These two examples, out of many, prove how war affects a person and their emotions. Sometimes their actions too. On any other day, Lieutenant Cross would have ever considered to rip up the picture of Martha due to his emotional ties to her. But he chose to do this due to his deep rooted anger and self hate initially regarding the situation. Many of Crosss decisions were based off of emotion because he was stripped of mental health as a result of war. This book is stylistically unique among all other attributes. While I was reading the book, the main thing that stood out to me, regarding organization, was the way that OBrien achieved to capture my attention and help me relate to the book. By choosing an omniscient narration, I was able to go through the emotions with the main character. By using this narration style, OBrien is able to appeal to all ages and people of different walks of life. Even though the reader may not have any military background. If you refer back to the chapter titles, the titles are a story in themselves. Each title refers to the main theme of the chapter. Sometimes the titles contradict one another. For example: Enemies Friends. But the titles from the example can be seen as OBrien giving the reader both sides to a coin. He then includes the chapter How to tell a good war story, when ironically, this book is a war story. Details like organization can often be viewed as small or insignificant. But if you pay attention to the small details, they can help you understand the book a little more and also see the intentions of the author. The chapters of the book tell a story, about a story. And a detail like that is what makes this book more interesting.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction For a long period, Americans have been trying to explore the benefits that have been since the individual States of America joined to form what currently known as United States of America. Although various ideas have been presented to support both sides of the story, I believe that the positive impacts that United States had on America outweigh the adverse effects. Political, cultural, social and technological advances that have witnessed in America over the centuries have contributed to the United States growth. This paper seeks to discuss the impacts that the United States had on the Americans from approximately 1880s to present. Effects of United States on the economy and cultural values of America? By considering the history of America, one can recognize that the formation of the United States in the 18th century marked the beginning of the economic prowess. That United State has been enjoying. In the 1880s, the economy of the United States grew extensively as the new states transformed from being rural agricultural lands to urban industrial giants. Most of the states established urban industries, and this made America the chief manufacturing country in the world. Railway lines set in several countries and this boomed the economy of America at large. United States has positively impacted the culture of some American people, but Negative effect Texas, Cuba, Mexico, and Guatemala was impacted because they were in the way of growth for the UnitedShow MoreRelatedThe United States And Its Impact On America Essay1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages19th century, there was a common belief that God had destined The United S tates to expand entirely across the North American continent, and eventually across the entire Western Hemisphere. They believed that what they were doing was justifiable, because they believed that God was telling them to do this. 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These chain of events that have changed US history and have had wideRead MoreGuns Have Impact On The United States Of America Essay2019 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesmajor role in shaping and constructing the United States of America to the way it is today. In the early times of United States history, the founding fathers set in stone that every man has the right to bear arms. In recent years there have been numerous politicians that have been fighting to take that right away from us. The Second Amendment to the Unites States Constitution states, Ã¢â¬Å"A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bearRe ad MoreIsis s Impact On The United States Of America2291 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesBen Rodkey Glaser English 10 3-4-15 ISIS ISIS has been a rapidly increasing threat to not just the United States of America, but the entire world. 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The Romantics is a culturally inclined book written by Pankaj Mishra. The publication deals with lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s differences and how people came to know more about their own respective cultures. It brings out every reader into a journey of culture. We will write a custom essay sample on Gustav Flaubert and Ivan Turgenev or any similar topic only for you Order Now life and the true meaning of existence. The main character Samar, made his move while he is in a juxtaposition of cultures. One may find himself in the shoes of Samar who wanted to engage in more discoveries. Samar, is a fresh graduate who arrived in Benares, also known as the holy city in 1989. He wanted to continue with his solitary life with his book as he chose to stay in a room there. Samar loves to deal with his friends namely Edmund Wilson, Gustav Flaubert and Ivan Turgenev. But on the place where he stays, he lives adjacent to a woman from the west, Catherine. She is a French young woman who had a great impact on SamarÃ¢â¬â¢s life. She made a vast change on his outlook in life and dealing with what the good world awaits for him. He was able to recover from the past that he wanted to escape but then the conflicting part is that he falls for the wrong woman. Catherine is already committed which made the story interesting. It was really a big frustration for him to know the truth since he fall in love for the first time since he never believe in the set up of love before. In Benares he discovered many things that changed his life. Starting from the ancestors Brahmin down to practices and political issues. He was able to contemplate on the commonality of people who are there. They all wanted to escape their past. Going back to Samar and Catherine, the two had a chance to become lovers but then Catherine decided to cut their relationship off. Good thing Samar was able to recover and took a teaching job for young Tibetan children. When he was reunited with an old friend from Benares after seven years, he told himself that he is apart from those people who lives there. He is now far from the old tradition and on his way to recuperating for a better future. The Romantics tells about the clashing of culture in contemporary India. The author attempted to explore how people during the time differ from their backgrounds, culture and how it is romanticized to unveil the mysteries of India. How to cite Gustav Flaubert and Ivan Turgenev, Papers
Friday, April 24, 2020
Chapter Five Summary The discussion in chapter four brings out the importance of each of the 21 responsibilities individually but says very little to show how they relate to each other. For the relationships to be identified, a factor analysis was conducted based on responses to a questionnaire used to assess the behavior of principalsÃ¢â¬â¢ in relation to the 21 responsibilities.Advertising We will write a custom coursework sample on School Leadership That Works: From Research To Results specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is the subject matter of this chapter. An important discovery that resulted from the analysis was that two traits; first-order and second-order changes, appeared to underlie the responsibilities (Marzano, Waters, McNulty 2005). First- and Second-Order Change First-order change is incremental in nature and is usually the first option sought after by school leadership when faced with a problem. Its success r elies mainly on past occurrences and the application of fresh ideas is often not an option. To a large extent, it can only prepare an individual for common situations. It is, however, quite challenging to try using this approach on new challenges for which solutions are not readily available. Second-order change on the other hand is radical and for any benefits to be realized, steadfast leadership is a must. It entails conceptualizing a problem differently or adopting a completely new strategy. The Difficulty of the Second-Order Change The adoption of second-order change has failed in a number of occasions and in discouraged innovation in many areas. There is a high tendency for humans to look at nearly all problems as if they were of first-order nature and this is one of the reasons why it has been difficult to advance the use of second-order change. Also, second-order change is to a certain extent unpopular with many as it strongly disregards the status quo which most people are d etermined to maintain. The use of second-order change has also been a dreadful venture for many who may not be ready to accommodate criticisms. One has to be quite resilient to succeed using this form of leadership. Leadership for First-Order Change: Managing the Daily Life of a School The outcome of the factor analysis clearly shows how the 21 responsibilities interact and how they can be applied to achieve change. Involvement in the day-to-day changes in a school will require that all the 21 principal responsibilities to be seen as important although to a varying degree. Despite the fact that the responsibilities are ranked in order of importance, none of them should receive little importance.Advertising Looking for coursework on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The routine business of schooling demands corrections and alterations which, by definition are first order in nature and as such, first-order change is vie wed as a by-product of the day-to-day functions of the school. Relating the 21 responsibilities to the first-order change shows that these responsibilities define the standard operating procedures in a school. They are regarded as the management tools of effective school leaders. Leadership for Second-Order Change Unlike first-order, second-order change is linked to 7 of the 21 responsibilities and it presents a dramatic departure from what is anticipated both in stating a problem and providing a solution. The change manifests itself only in the context of a specific issue or problem being solved. Central to second-order change is innovation and just as in the case of first-order change, a leader should not be misguided by the ranking to underrate any of the responsibilities. From the factor analysis, it can also be noted that three of the responsibilities identified as very important to the second-order change are ranked low in terms of relative importance to the first-order change . Some of the 21 Responsibilities mentioned are adversely affected by second-order change. A school leader might have to endure the perception that culture, communication, order and routine, and the level of input have all deteriorated as a result of innovation with culture having the strongest negative relationship to the second-order change. Conclusion The differences noticeable between first- and second-order changes and the regular tendency to look at all changes as first-order provide a good foundation to start digging into the failure of previous innovations. There is a very high possibility that these innovations were second-order changes that were managed as though they were first-order changes and hence the failure. Reference Marzano, R.J., Waters, T., McNulty, B.T. (2005). School Leadership That Works: From Research To Results. Alexandria Va. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development This coursework on School Leadership That Works: From Research To Results was written and submitted by user Kason Holland to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Evolutional explanations Essays Evolutional explanations Essay Evolutional explanations Essay The evolutionary explanation, or instinct theory, states that aggression is an adaptive response. This response enables us to obtain resources, defend against attack, eliminate competition for mates and force sexual fidelity from mates. In 1966 Lorenz stated that there were four main drivers behind animal aggression; fear, reproduction, hunger and anger. He also stated that aggression could occur only within a species not across two different species. Lorenz discussed that aggression between two animals is often ritualised. Ritualised aggression itself is aggressive, but little harm actually comes to either animal.This theory is backed up by Morris in 1990, he found that animal disputes show a lot of restraint, this restraint is called an appeasement tactic e.g. dogs show their belly when they feel threatened to stop the opponent from taking the fight any further. The evolutionary approach to aggression states that there are four aims of aggression; to win or control territory, increasing solidarity between males and females, becoming and maintain a dominant role and natural selection through survival of the fittest. There are three main problems with the instinct theory. Firstly, it fails to take into account variations in aggression across individuals and cultures. Secondly, Lorenz compares man to animals and we are not like animals as we have culture to an extent animals do not. The final evaluation point of the instinct theory is that it can be argued that aggression can be learnt socially through social learning theory, not through genes.Infidelity and jealousy is another evolutionary explanation of aggression. Infidelity is having a sexual relationship with someone other than your partner. Jealousy is a state of fear caused by either a real or imagined threat to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s status an exclusive sexual partner. Cuckoldry is often the cause of sexual jealousy. Cuckoldry occurs when a woman deceives her male partner into investing into offspring conceived with another man.A main researcher in this area is Young. In 1978 Young asked students to describe how they would react to a jealousy inducing scenario. Men in general said they would become drunk, respond angrily and threaten their rival male. Women on the other hand pretend not to care, cry and try to increase their own attractiveness to get male attention. One major problem with YoungÃ¢â¬â¢s study is that the participants may have answered differently on the questionnaire to how they would react normally due to social desirability.Another explanation of aggression as an adaptive response is murder. Buss and Duntley (2006) said that humans have evolved adaptations through natural selection to produce what we now call murder. They discussed how if murder is used is determined by four factors; the degree of relatedness between killer and victim, the relative status of killer and victim, the sex of killer and victim and the size and strength of the killerÃ¢â¬â¢s and victimÃ¢â¬â¢s alliances.In order to evolve as a strategy it must have been associated with greater reproductive success than conflicting strategies. Wilson and Daly in 1985 said that sexual jealousy, lack of resources and threats to male status are all reasons for murder to occur. Wilson and Daly support both their prior study and the study by Buss and Duntley by over viewing the Detroit murders of 1972. They found that the motive behind most of the killings, both killers and victims were unemployed, unmarried and young, low status without a mate. The problem with Buss, Duntley, Wilson and DalyÃ¢â¬â¢s research is that is says the act of murder is determined by our evolutionary past and freewill does not come into play, murder could not be committed due to a grudge or hatred is the act is determined.The final explanation of aggression as an adaptive response is group display. There are three levels of group aggression: a crowd, a mob and a riot. A crowd is a lot of people who have gathered into one group very closely, mobs are disorderly crowds and a riot is crowd or gathering which is protesting in a violent manor. Examples of group display fall into three categories; lynch mobs, sport aggression and religious displays. One theory which underpins the idea that group displays are an adaptive response to aggression is the power threat hypothesis. Blalock, in 1967 said that as a minority group grows, the majority group intensifies their efforts to remain dominant.Group displays of solidarity are discrimination against outsiders are more likely when the group feels at risk. Another way groups show aggression is by dehumanising the victim and reducing them into something non human. This makes it easier to carry out aggressive acts e.g. lynching. These aggressive deeds are sometimes made easier for an individual if they de-individuated. When someone is part of a crowd the loose their sense of individuality and therefore will do things they would not normally do. Convergence theory is another theory into group aggression; the group is made up of individuals who all have similar thought processes. Each individual is not influenced by the rest of the group, but all the members behave the same, due to their similar thoughts. Similarly, Contagion theory can also explain group aggression; people are influenced by the way a group acts.The individuals do not need to think similarly, they conform to the behaviour of one bad egg.Ã¢â¬â¢ Smelser (1963) argued that social life and its processes affect how individuals behave. This is weakness of the evolutionary theory; aggression is not only affected by our genes it is also affected by our social learning and environment. Smelser also argued that six things are necessary for a social movement to emerge. Structural conduct and if people realise their society has a problem, if society fails to meet expectation and deprives the people, growth and spread of an explanation, if one event triggers a reaction from a crowd, mobilisation for action where people distribute information about a cause and finally a lack of social control leads to a protesting crowd.In conclusion, the instinct theory can explain aggression; the only problem is it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take into account factors such as culture and it completely ignore the fact that we could learn to be aggressive through social learning. So overall a mixture of different explanations is needed to explain aggression.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Introduction to Bipedal Locomotion Bipedal locomotion refers to walking on two legs in an upright position, and the only animal to do that all the time is the modern human. Our ancestor primates lived in trees and rarely set foot on the ground; our ancestor hominins moved out of those trees and lived primarily in the savannas. Walking upright all the time is thought to have been an evolutionary step forward if you will, and one of the hallmarks of being human. Scholars have often argued that walking erect is an enormous advantage. Walking erect improves communication, allows visual access to farther distances, and changes throwing behaviors. By walking upright, a hominins hands are freed to do all sorts of things, from holding babies to making stone tools to throwing weapons. American neuroscientist Robert Provine has argued that sustained voiced laughter, a trait which greatly facilitates social interactions, is only possible in bipeds because the respiration system is freed to do that in an upright position. Evidence for Bipedal Locomotion There are four main ways scholars have used to figure out whether a particular ancient hominin is primarily living in the trees or walking upright: ancient skeletal foot construction, other bone configurations above the foot, footprints of those hominins, and dietary evidence from stable isotopes. The best of these, of course, is foot construction: unfortunately, ancient ancestral bones are difficult to find under any circumstances, and foot bones are very rare indeed. Foot structures associated with bipedal locomotion include a plantar rigidity- flat foot- which means the sole stays flat from step to step. Secondly, hominins that walk on the earth generally have shorter toes than hominins who live in trees. Much of this was learned from the discovery of a nearly complete Ardipithecus ramidus, an ancestor of ours who apparently walked upright sometimes, some 4.4 million years ago. Skeletal constructions above the feet are slightly more common, and scholars have looked at the configurations of the spine, the tilt, and structure of the pelvis, and the way the femur fits into the pelvis to make assumptions about a hominins ability to walk upright. Footprints and Diet Footprints are also rare, but when they are found in a sequence, they hold evidence that reflects the gait, length of stride, and weight transfer during walking. Footprint sites include Laetoli in Tanzania (3.5-3.8 million years ago, probably Australopithecus afarensis; Ileret (1.5 million years ago) and GaJi10 in Kenya, both likely Homo erectus; the Devils Footprints in Italy, H. heidelbergensis about 345,000 years ago; and Langebaan Lagoon in South Africa, early modern humans, 117,000 years ago. Finally, a case has been made that diet infers environment: if a particular hominin ate a lot of grasses rather than fruit from trees, it is likely the hominin lived primarily in grassed savannas. That can be determined through stable isotope analysis. Earliest Bipedalism So far, the earliest known bipedal locomotor was Ardipithecus ramidus, who sometimes- but not always- walked on two legs 4.4 million years ago. Fulltime bipedalism is currently thought to have been achieved by Australopithecus, the type fossil of which is the famous Lucy, approximately 3.5 million years ago. Biologists have argued that foot and ankle bones changed when our primate ancestors came down from the trees, and that after that evolutionary step, we lost the facility to regularly climb trees without the aid of tools or support systems. However, a 2012 study by human evolutionary biologist Vivek Venkataraman and colleagues points out that there are some modern humans who do regularly and quite successfully climb tall trees, in pursuit of honey, fruit, and game. Climbing Trees and Bipedal Locomotion Venkataraman and his colleagues investigated behaviors and anatomical leg structures of two modern-day groups in Uganda: the Twa hunter-gatherers and Bakiga agriculturalists, who have coexisted in Uganda for several centuries. The scholars filmed the Twa climbing trees and used movie stills to capture and measure how much their feet flexed while tree-climbing. They found that although the bony structure of the feet is identical in both groups, there is a difference in the flexibility and length of soft tissue fibers in the feet of people who could climb trees with ease compared with those who cannot. The flexibility that allows people to climb trees only involves soft tissue, not the bones themselves. Venkataraman and colleagues caution that the foot and ankle construction of Australopithecus, for example, does not rule out tree-climbing, even though it does allow upright bipedal locomotion.Ã Sources Been, Ella, et al. Morphology and Function of the Lumbar Spine of the Kebara 2 Neandertal. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142.4 (2010): 549-57. Print. Crompton, Robin H., et al. Human-Like External Function of the Foot, and Fully Upright Gait, Confirmed in the 3.66 Million Year Old Laetoli Hominin Footprints by Topographic Statistics, Experimental Footprint-Formation and Computer Simulation. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 9.69 (2012): 707-19. Print. DeSilva, Jeremy M., and Zachary J. Throckmorton. Lucys Flat Feet: The Relationship between the Ankle and Rearfoot Arching in Early Hominins. PLoS ONE 5.12 (2011): e14432. Print. Haeusler, Martin, Regula Schiess, and Thomas Boeni. New Vertebral and Rib Material Point to Modern Bauplan of the Nariokotome Homo Erectus Skeleton. Journal of Human Evolution 61.5 (2011): 575-82. Print. Harcourt-Smith, William E. H. Origin of Bipedal Locomotion. Handbook of Paleoanthropology. Eds. Henke, Winfried, and Ian Tattersall. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2015. 1919-59. Print. Huseynov, Alik, et al. Developmental Evidence for Obstetric Adaptation of the Human Female Pelvis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113.19 (2016): 5227-32. Print. Lipfert, Susanne W., et al. A Model-Experiment Comparison of System Dynamics for Human Walking and Running. Journal of Theoretical Biology 292.Supplement C (2012): 11-17. Print. Mitteroecker, Philipp, and Barbara Fischer. Adult Pelvic Shape Change Is an Evolutionary Side Effect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113.26 (2016): E3596-E96. Print. Provine, Robert R. Laughter as an Approach to Vocal Evolution: The Bipedal Theory. Psychonomic Bulletin Review 24.1 (2017): 238-44. Print. Raichlen, David A., et al. Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence of Human-Like Bipedal Biomechanics. PLoS ONE 5.3 (2010): e9769. Print. Venkataraman, Vivek V., Thomas S. Kraft, and Nathaniel J. Dominy. Tree Climbing and Human Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2012). Print. Ward, Carol V., William H. Kimbel, and Donald C. Johanson. Complete Fourth Metatarsal Andarches in the Foot of Australopithecus Afarensis. Science 331 (2011): 750-53. Print. Winder, Isabelle C., et al. Complex Topography and Human Evolution: The Missing Link. Antiquity 87 (2013): 333-49. Print.
Friday, February 14, 2020
APA Annotation for 4 articles - Research Paper Example The paper succeeds in demonstrating that the perception of Muslim women that is portrayed in the book undermines the need to address the patriarchal societies that make it difficult for the girl child to be empowered. Instead, it shows that the background of the author and financial motivations mostly drives the message. The paper is useful when evaluating the situation of Arabic Muslim girls in the United States of America. Although the paper serves as a strong critique of the book, it has failed to appreciate the truths in the novel. The Breadwinner has succeeded in contributing to the conversation about the role of religion in undermining the faith for equality in the society. The Arabic students in the country would identify with the argument made in the paper. In particular, they will identify with the fact that the institutional structure and culture where they learn often undermines the role of women. Moreover, they will agree that the Ã¢â¬Ëgirl in need of salvationÃ¢â¬â¢ narrative that is present in the book undermines their quest for recognition in the society. , Erick and Zaidi focus on how the media covered the murder of a young Muslim girl in Mississauga, Ontario. The incident occurred in December 7. In particular, they have focused on how the media shifted the conversation from concerns over a tragic family event to a larger topic, the clash of civilizations. The authors also focused on tolerance and the negative effect that the term has on the society. The paper has highlighted the cultural implications involved in the debate over the hijab. Since Canada and America share many cultural similarities, the paper will be informative in shaping conversations on the topic in America. The paper highlights the ethical implications in the society. The authors have succeeded in highlighting the impact of an event in